X-Ray Diffraction (XRD)

The Department of Earth Sciences operates a Philips X-ray Diffraction system. These instruments are available for use by members of this and other universities, as well as for commercial applications.

Fill the PDF iconJob Request Form to proceed. Contact the technician for questions.

Click on the buttons below for information on fees and booking, the booking calendar, and applications. Photos showing the applications of XRD are found in the gallery.

For more information, contact the XRD technician:

Dr. Yanan Liu
Senior Instrument Specialist
Phone: 416-978-5420
Email Dr. Liu

Phllips PW3710 Powder X-ray Diffractometer

Our lab has a Philips XRD system whose basic components are a PW 1830 HT generator, a PW 1050 goniometer, PW3710 control electronics, and X-Pert system software. Searchable ICDD Powder Diffraction File (2003) database and Rietveldt Refinement software are also available.

Other information:

Cu – Ceramic X-ray tube

Ni Filter

Gas Proportional Detector

Theta – 2 Theta Goniometer Configuration

For more information, visit the International Centre for Diffraction Data.

Powder X-ray Diffraction (XRD) is a technique in which a collimated beam of nearly monochromatic X-rays is directed onto the flat surface of a relatively thin layer of finely ground material (inorganic/organic compounds, naturally oocurring/synthetic). The sample-diffracted X-rays are then collected to reveal information about the structural state of the material(s) present in the sample.

The simplest application of powder XRD is that leading to phase identification Other applications include strain analysis and determination of the degree of crystallization.

Quantitative XRD, the determination of the relative amounts of different phases in a given sample, is also possible, although in most cases it is a difficult undertaking, requiring time and considerable expertise.

Some examples of applications of XRD can be found in the gallery.



Location: Rm 3102, Dept of Earth Sciences

Contact Lab Personnel to reserve time on the XRD.

Fill the PDF iconJob Request Form to proceed: contact the technician for questions. You will need Adobe’s Acrobat Reader® to open the job request form. You may download it, at no charge, from Adobe Systems.

View the Booking Calendar

The current fee structure (in $) is found below:

Users Hourly Rate
Department of Earth Sciences (NSERC) $16
Other University of Toronto members $26
Other universities $34
Commercial $46

Important notes for booking:

  1. The above rates do not include applicable taxes. An operator is not routinely available, but special circumstances will be considered.
  2. Cancellations made 24 hours or less before an appointment will be subject to a two-hour flat rate charge.