SEM and XRD Laboratories



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Powder X-ray Diffraction (XRD) is a technique in which a collimated beam of nearly monochromatic X-rays is directed onto the flat surface of a relatively thin layer of finely ground material (inorganic/organic compounds, naturally oocurring/synthetic). The sample-diffracted X-rays are then collected to reveal information about the structural state of the material(s) present in the sample.

The simplest application of powder XRD is that leading to phase identification Other applications include strain analysis and determination of the degree of crystallization.

Quantitative XRD, the determination of the relative amounts of different phases in a given sample, is also possible, although in most cases it is a difficult undertaking, requiring time and considerable expertise.

Our lab has a Philips XRD system whose basic components are a PW 1830 HT generator, a PW 1050 goniometer, PW3710 control electronics, and X-Pert system software. Searchable ICDD Powder Diffraction File (2003) database and Rietveldt Refinement software are also available.

For more information go to:



George Kretchmann

Dr. M. Gorton
Tel (416) 946-5309
Fax (416) 978-3938